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Modern Chemistry Chapter 13 Homework 13-1 Answers

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Preview Multiple Choice Short Answer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Preview Multiple Choice Short Answer
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13PreviewMultiple ChoiceShort Answer

2 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice1. Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because itA. is miscible with water.B. forms hydronium and hydroxide ions inaqueous solution.C. lowers the freezing point of water.D. ionizes only slightly in aqueous solution.

3 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice1. Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because itA. is miscible with water.B. forms hydronium and hydroxide ions inaqueous solution.C. lowers the freezing point of water.D. ionizes only slightly in aqueous solution.

4 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice2. Which of the following solutions would containthe highest concentration of hydronium ions,H3O+?A M HClB M HFC M CH3COOHD M NaCl

5 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice2. Which of the following solutions would containthe highest concentration of hydronium ions,H3O+?A M HClB M HFC M CH3COOHD M NaCl

6 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice3. Which of the following is the best representation of the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride are mixed?A. Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) NaCl(s)B.C.D. No precipitation reaction occurs.

7 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice3. Which of the following is the best representation of the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride are mixed?A. Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) NaCl(s)B.C.D. No precipitation reaction occurs.

8 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice4. Which of the following is not a colligative property?A. molalityB. vapor-pressure loweringC. boiling-point elevationD. osmotic pressure

9 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice4. Which of the following is not a colligative property?A. molalityB. vapor-pressure loweringC. boiling-point elevationD. osmotic pressure

10 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice5. Solution A contains 0.1 mol of sucrose, C12H22O11, dissolved in 500 g of water. Solution B contains 0.1 mol of sodium chloride, NaCl, in 500 g of water. Which of the following statements about these solutions is true?A. Both solutions have the same vapor pressure.B. Solution A would boil at a higher temperature than solution B would.C. Solution A would freeze at a higher temperature than solution B would.D. Both solutions would boil at the same temperature.

11 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice5. Solution A contains 0.1 mol of sucrose, C12H22O11, dissolved in 500 g of water. Solution B contains 0.1 mol of sodium chloride, NaCl, in 500 g of water. Which of the following statements about these solutions is true?A. Both solutions have the same vapor pressure.B. Solution A would boil at a higher temperature than solution B would.C. Solution A would freeze at a higher temperature than solution B would.D. Both solutions would boil at the same temperature.

12 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple ChoiceThe table below shows the freezing points of solutions of three nonvolatile solutes, X,Y, and Z, in water. Refer to the table to answer items 6 and 7. The Kf for water is −1.86°C/m.Solute(mol)Water(g)Freezing point (°C)X1.001000−5.58Y−1.86Z−3.72

13 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice6. Which of the following statements is not true?A. All three solutes are nonelectrolytes.B. Solute X could be Ca(NO3)2.C. Solute Y could be sucrose.D. Solute Z could be KCl.

14 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice6. Which of the following statements is not true?A. All three solutes are nonelectrolytes.B. Solute X could be Ca(NO3)2.C. Solute Y could be sucrose.D. Solute Z could be KCl.

15 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice7. Which of the solutions described in the table would have the highest boiling point?A. the solution of solute XB. the solution of solute YC. the solution of solute ZD. All three solutions would have the sameboiling point.

16 Chapter 13 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test PreparationChapter 13Multiple Choice7. Which of the solutions described in the table would have the highest boiling point?A. the solution of solute XB. the solution of solute YC. the solution of solute ZD. All three solutions would have the sameboiling point.

17 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer8. An aqueous solution of an unknown quantity of anonelectrolyte solute is found to have a freezing pointof −0.58°C.What is the molal concentration of thesolution?

18 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer8. An aqueous solution of an unknown quantity of anonelectrolyte solute is found to have a freezing pointof −0.58°C.What is the molal concentration of thesolution?Answer: m

19 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer9. Give the names and formulas of two strong electrolytes.

20 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer9. Give the names and formulas of two strong electrolytes.Answer: Answers will vary. Any strong acid, any strong base, or any soluble ionic compound is an acceptable answer. Weak acids, weak bases, or insoluble ionic compounds are not acceptable.

21 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer10. Write the formula equation, the overall ionic equation, and the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when solutions of zinc chloride, ZnCl2, and sodium sulfide, Na2S, are mixed.

22 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer10. Write the formula equation, the overall ionic equation, and the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when solutions of zinc chloride, ZnCl2, and sodium sulfide, Na2S, are mixed.Answer:formula: ZnCl2(aq) + Na2S(aq) ZnS(s) + 2NaCl(aq)overall ionic: Zn2+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + S2−(aq)ZnS(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq)Net ionic: Zn2+(aq) + S2−(aq) ZnS(s)

23 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer11. Distinguish between dissociation and ionization. Write one chemical equation to illustrate each of these terms.

24 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer11. Distinguish between dissociation and ionization. Write one chemical equation to illustrate each of these terms.Answer: Dissociation is the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves. Examples will vary. Two possibilities are

25 Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter 13Short Answer11. Distinguish between dissociation and ionization. Write one chemical equation to illustrate each of these terms.Answer, continued: Ionization is the creation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent. Examples will vary. Two possibilities are

Presentation on theme: "1 Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties Chapter 13 Modern Chemistry Sections 1 & 2 Compounds in Aqueous Solutions Colligative Properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties Chapter 13 Modern Chemistry Sections 1 & 2 Compounds in Aqueous Solutions Colligative Properties of a Solution

2 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 2 Compounds in Aqueous Solutions Section 13.1

3 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 3 VOCABULARY Dissociation Equation Precipitate Net Ionic Equation Spectator Ion Ionization Hydronium Ion Strong Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte

4 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 4 Concept Map 13.1 NET IONIC EQUATIONS DISSOCIATION EQUATION PRECIPITATE REACTIONS SPECTATOR IONS IONIZATION HYDRONIUM ION STRONG ELECTROLYTEWEAK ELECTROLYTE DISSOCIATION

5 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 5 Dissociation Equations Dissociation is the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves Dissociation equations show how an ionic solid breaks into ions when it dissociates. Don’t forget to balance the equation or add state of matter symbols. NaCl (s)  Na 1+ (aq) + Cl 1- (aq) CaCl 2 (s)  Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl 1- (aq)

6 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 6 Dissociation Equations CaCl 2 gives three ions per formula unit – one calcium and two chlorine. When one mole of CaCl 2 dissociates… One mole of calcium ions are produced Two moles of chloride ions are produced Three moles of ions – total- are produced CaCl 2 (s)  Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl 1- (aq)

7 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 7 1.Write the equation for the dissolution of aluminum sulfate, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3, in water. How many moles of aluminum ions and sulfate ions are produced by dissolving 1 mol of aluminum sulfate? What is the total number of moles of ions produced by dissolving 1 mol of aluminum sulfate? p. 436 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (s)  2Al 3+ (aq) + 3SO 4 2− (aq) 2 mol aluminum ions, 3 mol sulfate ions 5 ions total Dissociation Sample Problem

8 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 8 1. Write the equation for the dissolution of each of the following in water, and then determine the number of moles of each ion produced as well as the total number of moles of ions produced. a. 1 mol ammonium chloride b. 1 mol sodium sulfide c. 0.5 mol barium nitrate p. 436 Dissociation Practice Problems

9 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 9 a.NH 4 Cl (s)  NH 4 1+ (aq) + Cl 1− (aq) 1 mol ammonium ions; 1 mol chloride ions; 2 mol total ions b. Na 2 S (s)  2Na 1+ (aq) + S 2− (aq) 2 mol sodium ions; 1 mol sulfide ions; 3 mol total ions c. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (s)  Ba 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 1− (aq) 1 mol barium ions; 2 mol nitrate ions; 3 mol total ions p. 436 Dissociation Practice Problems

10 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 10 p. 437 Solubility of Ionic Compounds

11 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 11 p. 437 General Solubility Guidelines

12 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 12 General Solubility Guidelines

13 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 13 General Solubility Guidelines

14 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 14 p. 438 (NH 4 ) 2 S + Cd(NO 3 ) 2

15 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 15 NET IONIC EQUATION Write the balanced equation for the reaction between ammonium sulfide and cadmium II nitrate. Be sure to include states of matter What type of reaction is it? What are the products? (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + CdS (s)

16 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 16 NET IONIC EQUATION Each (aq) is dissociated. The (s) is not dissociated; it is the precipitate. Write the dissociation equation for each (aq). (NH 4 ) 2 S (s)  2 (NH 4 ) 1+ (aq) + S 2- (aq) Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (s)  Cd 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq)  2 NH 4 1+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + CdS (s)

17 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 17 NET IONIC EQUATION (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + CdS (s) (NH 4 )S ++ Cd 1+ 2- (aq) (NO 3 ) 2+ 1- (aq)  NH 4 NO 3 ++ 1+ 1- (aq) 22 2 2 CdS + (s) Break all (aq) into ions; not the (s) Balance and add states

18 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 18 NET IONIC EQUATION (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + CdS (s) (NH 4 ) S ++ Cd 1+ 2- (aq) (NO 3 ) 2+1- (aq)  NH 4 NO 3 ++ 1+ 1- (aq) 2 2 2 2 CdS + (s) Identify spectator ions and remove Write what’s left. + 

19 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 19 2- NET IONIC EQUATION (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + CdS (s) (NH 4 ) S ++ Cd 1+ (aq) (NO 3 ) 2+ 1- (aq)  NH 4 NO 3 ++ 1+ 1- (aq) 2 2 2 2 CdS + (s) This is the net ionic equation. + 

20 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 20 Ag(NO 3 ) + NaCl

21 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 21 NET IONIC EQUATION Write the balanced equation for the reaction between sodium chloride and silver nitrate. Be sure to include states of matter What type of reaction is it? What are the products? NaCl (aq) + Ag(NO 3 ) (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s)

22 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 22 NET IONIC EQUATION Each (aq) is dissociated. The (s) is not dissociated; it is the precipitate. Write the dissociation equation for each (aq). NaCl (s)  Na 1+ (aq) + Cl 1- (aq) Ag(NO 3 ) (s)  Ag 1+ (aq) + NO 3 1- (aq) NaNO 3 (aq)  Na 1+ (aq) + NO 3 1- (aq) NaCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s)

23 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 23 NaCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s) NET IONIC EQUATION NaCl ++ Ag 1+ 1- (aq) NO 3 1+1- (aq)  NaNO 3 ++ 1+ 1- (aq) AgCl + (s) Break all (aq) into ions; not the (s) Balance and add states

24 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 24 + NaCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s) NET IONIC EQUATION Na Cl ++ Ag 1+ 1- (aq) NO 3 1+1- (aq)  NaNO 3 + 1+ 1- (aq) AgCl + (s) Identify spectator ions and remove Write what’s left. + 

25 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 25 This is the net ionic equation. + NaCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s) NET IONIC EQUATION Na Cl ++ Ag 1+ 1- (aq) NO 3 1+ 1- (aq)  NaNO 3 + 1+ 1- (aq) AgCl + (s) + 

26 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 26 2- NET IONIC EQUATION (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + CdS (s) (NH 4 ) S ++ Cd 1+ (aq) (NO 3 ) 2+ 1- (aq)  NH 4 NO 3 ++ 1+ 1- (aq) 2 2 2 2 CdS + (s) This is the net ionic equation. + 

27 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 27 Identify the precipitate that forms when aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate and ammonium sulfide are combined. Write the equation for the possible double- displacement reaction. Then write the formula equation, overall ionic equation, and net ionic equation for the reaction. p. 440 Zn 2   (aq)  S 2−  (aq) →  ZnS (s) Sample Problem p. 440

28 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 28 1.Will a precipitate form if solutions of potassium sulfate and barium nitrate are combined? If so, write the net ionic equation for the reaction. 2.Will a precipitate form if solutions of potassium nitrate and magnesium sulfate are combined? If so, write the net ionic equation for the reaction. p. 440 2. No Practice Problems p. 440 1. Yes; Ba 2   (aq)  SO 4 2−  (aq) →BaSO 4 (s)

29 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 29 3.Will a precipitate form if solutions of barium chloride and sodium sulfate are combined? If so, identify the spectator ions and write the net ionic equation. 4.Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation of nickel(II) sulfide. p. 440 4. Ni 2   (aq)  S 2−  (aq) →  NiS (s) Practice Problems p. 440 3. Yes; Na  and Cl−; Ba 2   (aq)  SO4 2−  (aq) →  BaSO 4 (s)

30 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 30 Ionization vs. Dissociation Covalent compounds Ions are formed from solute molecules when they dissolve. Ionic compounds Ions are already present – the ions are separated by the water molecules.

31 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 31 Dissociation & Ionization

32 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 32 Ionization Usually occurs with polar molecules If the strength of a bond within the solute molecule is weaker than the attractive forces of the solvent molecules, then the covalent bond of the solute breaks and the molecule is separated into ions. The ions are hydrated – just like ions from dissociation. HCl (g)  H 1+ (aq) + Cl 1- (aq)

33 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 33 Hydronium ion, H 3 O + H + ion does not exist by itself. H + ion bonds to a water molecule to form H 3 O +, a hydronium ion. Better described as a reaction. H 2 O (l) + HCl (g)  H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

34 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 34 A solution which contains all (or most) of the solute in the form of ions. The solute is completely dissociated. Strong Electrolytes CaCl 2 (s)  1 mole Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl 1- (aq) 1 mole 2 moles +2

35 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 35 A solution which contains some of the solute in the form of ions, but most of the molecules stay intact. The solute is slightly ionized. Weak Electrolytes HF (aq) + H 2 O (l)  1 mole H 3 O + (aq) + F 1- (aq) 0.05 mol 0.05mol

36 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 36 p. 442* Electrolytes

37 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 37 Strong & Weak Electrolytes Insert Holt Disc 2

38 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 38 Glowing Pickle Insert Houghton Mifflin Chemistry DVD

39 Chapter 13 Section 1 Comp. in Aq. Soln p. 434-445 39 Ch 13 Sec 1 Homework Page 443 # 1-5

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