Vinyl Halide Synthesis Essay
In organic chemistry, a vinyl halide is a compound with the formula CH2=CHX (X = halide). The term vinyl is often used to describe any alkenyl group. For this reason, alkenyl halides with the formula RCH=CHX are sometimes called vinyl halides. From the perspective of applications, the dominant member of this class of compounds is vinyl chloride, which is produced on the scale of millions of tons per year as a precursor to polyvinyl chloride.Polyvinyl fluoride is another commercial product. Related compounds include vinylidene chloride and vinylidene fluoride.
Vinyl chloride is produced by dehydrochlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane.
A large number of reactions to form vinyl halides, which includes the reaction of vinyl organometallic species with halogens, and the Takai and Wittig olefination reactions. Olefin metathesis has also been shown to offer a distinct synthesis approach to access vinyl halides efficiently and stereoselectively.
Vinyl bromide and related alkenyl halides form the Grignard reagent and related organolithium reagents. Alkenyl halides undergo base elimination to give the corresponding alkyne. Most important is their use in cross-coupling reactions (e.g. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, Stille coupling, Heck coupling, etc.).
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Synthesis of alkenyl halides
β-Oxido phosphonium ylides, generated in situ from aldehydes and Wittig reagents react readily with electrophilic halogen sources to form predominantly or exclusively E-bromo- or iodosubstituted alkenes. The stereochemical outcome on halogenation is remarkably sensitive to alkylidene size [ethylidene(triphenyl)phosphorane is highly Z-selective].
D. M. Hodgson, T. Arif, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 16500-16501.
(E)-β-Aryl vinyl halides are synthesized in good yield with excellent stereoselectivity and functional group tolerance from benzyl bromides. The convenient conditions involve a nucleophilic substitution with anions of CH2I2, ICH2Cl, or CH2Br2 and a subsequent stereoselective base-induced elimination. A facile purification allows rapid access to a wide range of functionalized vinyl halides.
J. A. Bull, J. J. Mousseau, A. B. Charette, Org. Lett., 2008, 10, 5485-5488.
Previously unknown halo-substituted molybdenum alkylidene species are exceptionally reactive and are able to participate in high-yielding olefin metathesis reactions that afford acyclic 1,2-disubstituted Z-alkenyl halides. Transformations are promoted by small amounts of a catalyst that is generated in situ and used with unpurified, commercially available and easy-to-handle liquid 1,2-dihaloethene reagents.
M. J. Koh, T. T. Ngyuen, H. Zhang, R. R. Schrock, A. H. Hoveyda, Nature, 2016, 531, 459-465.
An efficient protocol for a highly stereoselective one-pot synthesis of (E)-β-aryl vinyl iodides and (E)-β-aryl vinyl bromides from styrenes is based on a ruthenium-catalyzed silylative coupling followed by a N-halosuccinimide-mediated halodesilylation reaction.
P. Pawluć, G. Hreczycho, J. Szudkowska, M. Kubicki, B. Marciniec, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 3390-3393.
Trapping of a diazo species in an intermolecular fashion by two independent ion species in tandem at the carbene center installs an electrophile and a nucleophile on the same carbon. This metal-free concept enables regioselective syntheses of various of vinyl halides, vinyl sulfones, and alkyne derivatives.
D. P. Ojha, K. R. Prabhu, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 18-21.
An optimized Julia olefination between readily available α-halomethyl sulfones and a variety of aldehydes afforded alkenyl halides in good to excellent yields with high E/Z stereoselectivities.
M.-E. Lebrun, P. Le Marquand, C. Berthelette, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 2009-2013.
An efficient synthesis of α-iodo/bromo-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes/ketones directly from propargylic alcohols is catalyzed collaboratively by Ph3PAuNTf2 and MoO2(acac)2, and Ph3PO as an additive helps suppress undesired enone/enal formation. Notable features of this method include low catalyst loadings, mild reaction conditions, and mostly good diastereoselectivity.
L. Ye, L. Zhang, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 3646-3649.
Stoichiometric bromotrichloromethane in acetonitrile can replace solvent quantities of carbon tetrachloride in the synthesis of gem-dichloroalkenes from aldehydes in the presence of triphenylphosphine. Similarly, bromotrichloromethane in dichloromethane can be used for the Appel reaction of benzyl alcohols to form benzyl chlorides at r.t., which is commonly carried out in refluxing carbon tetrachloride.
S. G. Newman, C. S. Bryan, D. Perez, M. Lautens, Synthesis, 2011, 342-346.
A transition-metal-free cross-coupling of two carbene fragments proceeds through the direct nucleophilic addition of diazo compounds to difluorocarbene derived from Ruppert-Prakash reagent (TMSCF3) or TMSCF2Br followed by elimination of N2. This transition-metal-free protocol efficiently affords various disubstituted 1,1-difluoroalkenes, including difluoroacrylates, diaryldifluoroolefins, as well as arylalkyldifluoroolefins.
M. Hu, C. Ni, L. Li, Y. Han, J. Hu, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 14496-14501.
A Cu-catalyzed gem-difluoroolefination of diazo compounds with TMSCF3 affords the desired 1,1-difluoroalkene products via trifluoromethylation followed by C-F bond cleavage.
M. Hu, Z. He, B. Gao, L. Li, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 17302-17305.
A fast and practical cross-coupling between difluorocarbene and carbene-derived intermediates generated from diazocompounds provides hindered gem-difluoroolefins. Whereas the cross-coupling between difluorocarbene and aryl diazoacetates proceeded smoothly in the presence of a copper source, the coupling with diaryl diazomethanes occurred well under metal-free conditions.
J. Zheng, J.-H. Lin, L.-Y. Yu, Y. Wei, X. Zheng, J.-C. Xiao, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 6126-6129.
Difluoromethyl 2-pyridyl sulfone acts as a novel and efficient gem-difluoroolefination reagent for both aldehydes and ketones. A fluorinated sulfinate intermediate in the reaction is relatively stable and can be observed by 19F NMR and trapped with CH3I.
Y. Zhao, W. Huang, L. Zhu, J. Hu, Org. Lett., 2010, 12, 1444-1447.
Deprotonation of a 64:36 mixture of ethyl bromo(diphenylphosphono)acetate and ethyl dibromo(diphenylphosphono)acetate using NaH as base at 0 °C and subsequent reaction with various aldehydes provided unsaturated α-bromoesters in good yields and high E-selectivities.
T. Olpp, R. Brückner, Synthesis, 2004, 2135-2152.
A highly stereoselective olefination reaction of α-fluoro-β-keto esters enables the synthesis of α-fluoro-α,β-unsaturated esters via nucleophilic addition, intramolecular nucleophilic addition, and elimination. α-Fluoro-α,β-unsaturated esters are important units in many biologically active compounds and useful precursors in a variety of functional-group transformations.
J. Qian, W. Yi, M. Lv, C. Cai, Synlett, 2015, 26, 127-132.
The reaction of aromatic ketones with bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate afforded aryl-(Z)-vinyl chlorides in the presence of scandium triflate, DMF, and benzoyl chloride as catalysts. A plausible addition-elimination mechanism is proposed. This catalytic method enables a green route to aryl-(Z)-vinyl chlorides.
W. Su, C. Jin, Org. Lett., 2007, 9, 993-996.
(E)-β-Arylvinyl bromides were efficiently and stereoselectively prepared in high yields by microwave irradiation of the corresponding anti-3-aryl-2,3-dibromopropanoic acids in AcOH in the presence of AgOAc.
C. Kuang, H. Senboku, M. Tokuda, Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 637-642.
(Z)-1-Bromo-1-alkenes were stereoselectively efficiently prepared in high yields by microwave irradiation of the corresponding anti-2,3-dibromoalkanoic acids in DMF using Et3N as base. Microwave-assisted one-pot syntheses of terminal alkynes and enynes from 2,3-dibromoalkanoic acids were also developed.
C. Kuang, Q. Yang, H. Senboku, M. Tokuda, Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 4043-4052.
Application of (PhO)3P-halogen-based reagents allows the preparation of vinyl halides in good to excellent yields from enolizable ketones, whereas aldehydes afforded the corresponding gem-dihalides. The halogenation proceeded smoothly under mild conditions.
A. Spaggiari, D. Vaccari, P. Davoli, G. Torre, F. Prati, J. Org. Chem., 2007, 72, 2216-2219.
Allylic gem-dichlorides undergo regio- and enanantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation with Grignard reagents to afford chiral Z-vinyl chlorides. Subsequent Suzuki cross coupling reactions afford optically active Z-alkenes and 1,3-cis,trans dienes.
M. Giannerini, M. Fañanás-Mastral, B. L. Feringa, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 4108-4111.