Josias Semujanga Origins Of The Rwandan Genocide Essay

Genocide in Rwanda Essay

1910 Words8 Pages

Genocide is “the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, ethnic, political, or cultural group”. In Rwanda for example, the Hutu-led government embraced a new program that called for the country’s Hutu people to murder anyone that was a Tutsi (Gourevitch, 6). This new policy of one ethnic group (Hutu) that was called upon to murder another ethnic group (Tutsi) occurred during April through June of 1994 and resulted in the genocide of approximately 800,000 innocent people that even included women and children of all ages. In this paper I will first analyze the origins/historical context regarding the discontent amongst the Hutu and Tutsi people as well as the historical context as to why major players in the international…show more content…

Genocide is “the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, ethnic, political, or cultural group”. In Rwanda for example, the Hutu-led government embraced a new program that called for the country’s Hutu people to murder anyone that was a Tutsi (Gourevitch, 6). This new policy of one ethnic group (Hutu) that was called upon to murder another ethnic group (Tutsi) occurred during April through June of 1994 and resulted in the genocide of approximately 800,000 innocent people that even included women and children of all ages. In this paper I will first analyze the origins/historical context regarding the discontent amongst the Hutu and Tutsi people as well as the historical context as to why major players in the international community chose not to intervene. Second, the actor/agent using political violence, in this case the Hutu, will also be analyzed into segments that include the characterization of the Hutu people, as well as their goals, tactics of violence used and resources administered that allowed them to accomplish the genocide against the Tutsi. Finally, how the Tutsi respond to the violence against them, what resources they had in deterring the Hutu and the outcome of the Rwanda genocide will also be discussed. To begin with, the Tutsis and the Hutus have been in conflict with each other ever since the Tutsi monarchy had control of Rwanda from 1853-1895. During this time the Hutus were forced into slave labor. The determination of why the Hutus were

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Background Information  « top »

  • Adelman, Howard, and Astri Suhrke, editors. The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999. (DT 450.435 .P385 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Series of essays tracing the Rwandan genocide and its aftermath, from the plight of exiles in Uganda through the refugee crisis in Zaire. Reviews Canadian, French, and American policies toward Rwanda, the role of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR), the Organization of African Unity, and the Arusha peace process. Contains maps, a glossary, bibliography, and an index.

  • Barnett, Michael. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. (DT 450.435 .B38 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Criticizes the failure of the United Nations to intervene in the Rwandan genocide from an insider’s perspective. Discusses the moral responsibility individuals and the United Nations bear for their indifference and inaction during the genocide. Includes a chronology of the Rwandan conflict, selected chronology of United Nations’ Security Agenda, chapter notes, and an index.

  • Gasana, James K. “Natural Resource Scarcity and Violence in Rwanda.” (external link) In Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods and Security, edited by R. Matthew, M. Halle, and J. Switzer, 199-246. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development and IUCN - The World Conservation Union, 2002. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Report by a former member of the Rwandan government analyzing land shortages, poverty, and the social, environmental, economic, and political factors causing violence in the region. Explains the role of the political elite in fomenting the ethnic tensions and genocide. Contains a chronology, tables, endnotes, and references.

  • Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998. (DT 450.435 .G68 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Comprehensive work detailing the Rwandan genocide, its precipitating factors, and aftermath based on investigative fieldwork in Rwanda. Includes interviews with perpetrators, bystanders, survivors, political and military leaders, and representatives from international organizations. The author discovered handwritten execution lists identifying Tutsis in North Kivu, as well as evidence of the Hutu militarization of refugee camps in Goma, Zaire.

  • Keane, Fergal. Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey. London: Penguin, 1996. (DT 450.435 .K43 1996) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Memoir of a journalist that provides firsthand accounts of Rwandan Patriotic Front troops, survivors, and perpetrators infiltrating a refugee camp in Tanzania. Depicts the carnage in Rwanda with the author’s observations of his journey through the region. Contains a detailed chronology.

  • Khan, Shaharyar M. The Shallow Graves of Rwanda. London: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (DT 450.435 .K48 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Chronicle of the Rwandan genocide written by the United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Representative. Assesses accusations leveled against the United Nations and international community for failing to intervene in the genocide and analyzes UNAMIR’s actions. Includes photographs, a map, bibliography, and an index.

  • Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda. New York: New York University Press, 1998. (DT 450.435 .K55 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Analyzes the failure to prevent or intervene in the Rwandan genocide by the United Nations, the Organization of African Unity, France, Belgium, the United States, and governments in the region. Traces the actions or inaction of various parties with respect to the genocide convention, national sovereignty, humanitarian relief efforts, and post-conflict justice. Contains chapter notes and an index.

  • Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001. (DT 450.435 .K86 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Examines multiple military intervention scenarios to project how the Rwandan genocide could have been halted. Includes a chronological model of the genocide’s progression with population statistics by prefecture and week from April through July 1994. Contains maps, tables, figures, chapter notes, appendices, and an index.

  • Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001. (DT 450.435 .M35 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Examines racial and ethnic identities in relation to political power in Rwanda from the colonial era through the conflicts of the 20th century. Includes chapter notes, a bibliography, and an index.

  • Melvern, Linda. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide. London: Zed Books, 2000. (DT 450.435 .M426 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Discusses the failure of international peacekeepers and the United Nations to intervene during the genocide. Includes maps, a chronology, the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, chapter notes, a bibliography, and an index.

  • Prunier, Gérard. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. (DT 450.435 .P78 1995) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Combines a historical overview of Rwanda with scholarly analysis of the political and economic factors that contributed to the genocide. Discusses political leadership, periods of violence, the plight of refugees forced to remain in exile, the civil war, genocide, foreign intervention, and resulting refugee crisis in the Kivu regions of Zaire. Contains chapter notes, a bibliography, glossary, and an index.

  • Rittner, Carol, John K. Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, editors. Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? Newark, Nottinghamshire, U.K.: Aegis Trust, 2004. (DT 450.435 .G474 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Compilation of essays examining the power of the church, its relations with the Rwandan government, and its role in the genocide. Questions the church’s failure to denounce ethnic distinctions, hate rhetoric, and violence and considers changes needed to prevent the recurrence of genocide in Rwanda and elsewhere. Contains a chronology, the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the Statute of the International Tribunal for Rwanda, a videography, list of Web links, bibliography, and an index.

  • Scherrer, Christian P. Genocide and Crisis in Central Africa: Conflict Roots, Mass Violence, and Regional War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002. (DT 450.435 .S355 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Analyzes the Rwandan genocide and its impact in the Great Lakes region of Africa. Discusses institutionalized racism, ethnic stratification, and violence from Rwanda and Burundi’s colonial period onward, as well as Rwanda’s Civil War, structures of state-sponsored genocide, and the complicity of churches and international donors. Includes a chronology, chapter notes, references, and an index.

  • Semujanga, Josias. Origins of Rwandan Genocide. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2003. (DT 450.435 .S3613 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Examines historical and political antecedents as well as social and religious discourse preceding Rwanda’s genocide. Questions the United Nations and Western governments’ justifications for failing to intervene. Includes a chronology, chapter notes, glossary, bibliography, and an index.

  • Straus, Scott. The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006. (DT 450.435 .S765 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Case study examining patterns of violence and regional instability based on interviews with 210 confessed and convicted Hutu perpetrators. Reviews genocide theories and considers the dynamics of political and social manipulation that prompts ordinary citizens to commit mass murder. Contains maps, figures, tables, chapter notes, an appendix, and index.

  • Taylor, Christopher C. Sacrifice As Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Oxford: Berg, 1999. (DT 450.435 .T39 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Draws on history, politics, and survivor interviews to examine state power and use of Rwandan mythology, ritual, and symbolism to incite citizen participation in the genocide as well as propaganda and hate speech. Contains sexually explicit cartoons published in Kangura, maps, chapter notes, a bibliography, and an index.

  • Thompson, Allan, editor. The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. London: Pluto Press, 2007. (DT 450.435 .M43 2007) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Compilation of essays examining the media’s role in the Rwandan genocide by analyzing hate speech and propaganda in radio and print. Covers the subsequent trials against the media for incitement to genocide and critiques international media coverage of the genocide. Includes United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s 2004 Message to Symposium on the Media and the Rwanda Genocide, references, recommended reading, and an index.

  • Twagilimana, Aimable. The Debris of Ham: Ethnicity, Regionalism, and the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2003. (DT 450.435 .D44 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Emphasizes the significance of the Hamitic myth in relation to ethnic distinction, regional political divides among Rwandan Hutus, and the impact of the 1959 revolution as important precursors to the 1994 genocide. Discusses other social, political, and economic factors within a historical context, as well as government indifference and complicity in human rights violations to purposefully pave the path to genocide. Includes a chronology, bibliography, and an index.

  • United Nations. The United Nations and Rwanda, 1993-1996. New York: Dept. of Public Information, United Nations, 1996. (DT 450.435 .U54 1996) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Explains the role of the United Nations in Rwanda prior to, during, and after the genocide with respect to policy and peacekeeping initiatives. Contains General Assembly and Security Council resolutions, Secretary-General reports and letters, reports on human rights and humanitarian assistance, communications from Rwanda, regional organizations, and United Nations member states, maps, a chronology, and an index.

  • Uvin, Peter. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1998. (DT 450.435 .U95 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Illustrates the role of international development projects in shaping civil society, political exclusion, and class distinctions in Rwanda. Includes a chronology, figures, tables, chapter notes, bibliography, and an index.

  • Uvin, Peter. “Prejudice, Crisis, and Genocide in Rwanda.” (external link) African Studies Review 40, no. 2 (1997): 91-115. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Discusses the social and psychological processes of radicalizing prejudice to incite genocide in Rwanda. Examines pre-colonial and colonial history to explore Rwandan elites’ long tradition of institutionalizing racism and employing political psychology to manipulate the general population. Contains references.

  • Investigative Reports  « top »

  • Cutts, Mark. “The Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath.” (external link) In The State of the World’s Refugees, 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action, 245-275. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2000. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Discusses the resurgence of violence after the initial months of genocide, and the role of refugee camps which both provided shelter to victims and survivors, but also were used by perpetrators to regroup and mobilize for further attacks. Also analyzes the violence in neighboring countries as a result of cross-border violence and regional instability. Contains maps, photos, figures, and references.

  • Des Forges, Alison. “Leave None to Tell the Story”: Genocide in Rwanda. (external link) New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999. (DT 450.435 .D45 1999) (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Comprehensive study based on Rwandan government records examining the planning and implementation of the genocide, and actions taken by various parties at the local, national, and international level. Describes social and political precursors, administrative and military tactics used to carry out the mass murders, and individual survival strategies. Contains chapter notes and an index.

  • Human Rights Watch/Africa. “Genocide in Rwanda: April-May 1994.” Human Rights Watch 6, no. 4 (1994): 1-12. (JC 599.A36 N48 1994) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Report documenting the first seven weeks of the Rwandan genocide citing specific incidents and death tolls. Lists the names of Rwandan government officials, military officers, and owners and directors of the Radio des Milles Collines identified as parties responsible for the genocide. Critiques the lack of response from the international community and provides recommendations to avoid violence in the future.

  • Kroslak, Daniela. The French Betrayal of Rwanda. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.  (DT 450.435 .K769 2008) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Examines the French government’s role in Rwandan affairs leading up to the 1994 Hutu uprising and during the genocide. Includes a chronology, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, a bibliography, list of abbreviations, glossary, and list of personalities.

  • Melvern, Linda. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. London: Verso, 2004. (DT 450.435 .M423 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Comprehensive investigation of the Rwandan genocide. Draws on primary sources including records of interim government cabinet members responsible for the genocide, as well as evidence and witness testimony before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Includes maps, a chronology, the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, chapter notes, bibliography, and an index.

  • Murray, Rachel. “The Report of the OAU’s International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events.” (external link) Journal of African Law 45, no. 1 (2001): 123-133. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Summarizes key findings of the Organization of African Unity’s report of the International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events.

  • Nowrojee, Binaifer. Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence During the Rwandan Genocide and Its Aftermath. (external link) New York: Human Rights Watch, 1996. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents eyewitness testimony confirming that thousands of women were gang-raped, sexually enslaved, tortured, mutilated, and killed during the Rwandan genocide. Discusses propaganda inciting mass rape of Tutsi women to humiliate, subjugate, and dehumanize them, and considers rape as a legally punishable crime of genocide. Examines subsequent psychological problems, health issues, pregnancy, social stigma, and economic problems faced by rape victims. Contains references.

  • Organization of African Unity. Rwanda, the Preventable Genocide: The Report of International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events. (external link) Addis Ababa: Organization of African Unity, 2000. (DT 450.435 .O74 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Comprehensive investigation of the Rwandan genocide examining its historical roots, the Arusha peace process and roles of the Organization of African Unity, United Nations, Belgium, France, and the United States. Discusses the plight of women and children, the refugee crisis, militarized United Nations camps, regional instability, justice, reconciliation, and recommendations. Contains chapter notes and annexes.

  • Peress, Gilles. The Silence. New York: Scalo, 1995. (DT 450.435 .P47 1995) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Contains extremely graphic photographs of victims taken during and immediately after the genocide.

  • Rakita, Sara, Alison Des Forges, and Michael McClintock. Rwanda, Lasting Wounds: Consequences of Genocide and War on Rwanda’s Children. (external link) New York: Human Rights Watch, 2003. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Interviews with hundreds of child survivors targeted for rape, torture, and execution by Hutu extremists during the Rwandan genocide. Critiques the Rwandan government, international donors, and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) for failing to protect children’s rights, and provides recommendations for the future. Includes photographs and references.

  • United Nations. Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda. (external link) Geneva: United Nations, 1999. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Definitive report concerning actions by the United Nations in Rwanda prior to and during the genocide. Evaluates UNAMIR’s mandate and resources, critiques the failure of the United Nations to prevent or intervene in the genocide, draws lessons from mistakes made, and provides recommendations for improving the response by the United Nations to future crisis situations. Contains a detailed chronology of key events in Rwanda from October 1993 through July 1994, and annexes.

  • Wallis, Andrew. Silent Accomplice: The Untold Story of France’s Role in the Rwandan Genocide. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006. (DT 450.435 .W355 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Comprehensive investigation of France’s role in the Rwandan genocide. Uses official documents, interviews and eyewitness testimony to assert that France secretly provided arms, military, financial, and diplomatic support to the Hutu perpetrators before, during, and after the murders. Contains maps, a glossary, chapter notes, bibliography, and an index.

  • Weitsman, Patricia A. "The Politics of Identity and Sexual Violence: A Review of Bosnia and Rwanda.” (external link) Human Rights Quarterly 30, no. 3 (2008): 561-578.  (JC 571 .U64 v. 30) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Argues that during some wars a permissive environment for sexual violence is fostered, citing the specific examples of Rwanda and Bosnia.  Includes footnotes.

  • Biographies and Testimonies  « top »

  • Berry, John A., and Carol Pott Berry, editors. Genocide in Rwanda: A Collective Memory. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1999. (DT 450.435 .G47 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents eyewitness accounts and testimonies of the Rwandan genocide. Contains the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, a chronology, glossary, bibliography, and an index.

  • Dallaire, Roméo, and Brent Beardsley. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2003. (DT 450.435 .D34 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Chronicles the author’s experiences as the former Force Commander of UNAMIR during the genocide. Presents an insider’s account of the daily lives and perspectives of the UNAMIR peacekeepers, their inability to act, and the role of international leaders. Contains maps, a glossary, reading list, and an index. See film section for related video.

  • Hatzfeld, Jean. Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak: A Report. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2005. (DT 450.435 .H3914 2005) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Ten Hutu perpetrators describe the three months period during which they neglected their farms to find hundreds of Tutsi neighbors hiding in forests and swamps in order to murder them by machete. The killers describe their daily life, actions, thoughts and feelings during the genocide and a decade later. Includes a photograph and biographies of the men, and a chronology and maps of both Rwanda and the district of Nyamata.

  • Ilibagiza, Immaculée, and Steve Erwin. Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House, 2006. (BX 4705 .I46 A3 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Memoir of a Rwandan genocide survivor who hid for three months with seven other women in a pastor’s bathroom.

  • Jefremovas, Villia. “Acts of Human Kindness: Tutsi, Hutu and the Genocide.” (external link) Issue: A Journal of Opinion 23, no. 2, Rwanda (1995): 28-31. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Provides examples of solidarity between Tutsi and Hutu people who crossed ethnic divides to risk their own safety in order to protect others from certain death during the genocide. Contains notes and a bibliography.

  • Jennings, Christian. Across the Red River: Rwanda, Burundi, and the Heart of Darkness. London: Phoenix, 2001. (DT 352.2 .J46 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Recounts the author’s experiences as a journalist in Rwanda where he conducted interviews with government officials, survivors, and refugees for a documentary film project. Contains maps and photographs.

  • Lyons, Robert, and Scott Straus. Intimate Enemy: Images and Voices of the Rwandan Genocide. New York: Zone Books, 2006. (DT 450.435 .L96 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents interviews with imprisoned Hutu perpetrators from various social classes and professions, many of whom await the death penalty for their role in the genocide. Contains photographs, a map, and a glossary.

  • Miller, Donald E., and Lorna Touryan Miller. Orphans of the Rwanda Genocide. (external link) Kigali, Rwanda: Association des Orphelins Chefs de Ménages, 2004. (DT 450.435 .M55 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Contains photographs and excerpts from an oral history project documenting the accounts of one hundred orphaned survivors of the Rwandan genocide. Children speak about atrocities, emotional trauma, widespread AIDS among rape victims, poverty and other struggles, as well as emotional healing, communal support, and optimism for reconciliation. Written in English and French.

  • Mushikiwabo, Louise, and Jack Kramer. Rwanda Means the Universe: A Native’s Memoir of Blood and Bloodlines. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2006. (DT 450.435 .M875 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Reconstructs the author’s activities in Washington, DC, as the Rwandan genocide occurred and her communications with her family in Kigali--most of whom were killed. Includes family experiences and broad political events to construct the week before the genocide began. Contains family photographs, a map, glossary, and an index.

  • Rusesabagina, Paul, and Tom Zoellner. An Ordinary Man: An Autobiography. New York: Viking, 2006. (DT 450.443 .R87 A3 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents the author’s account of his actions to save the lives of 1,268 refugees hidden in the Hotel Mille Collines in Kigali. Contains maps and a selected bibliography. The author’s experiences were adapted in the film Hotel Rwanda.

  • Salem, Richard A., editor. Witness to Genocide, the Children of Rwanda: Drawings by Child Survivors of the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. New York: Friendship Press, 2000. (DT 450.435 .W58 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents drawings and comments made by orphaned child survivors during trauma counseling therapy sessions. Contains vivid illustrations of atrocities and photos of the child illustrators.

  • Sebarenzi, Joseph, and Laura Mullane. God Sleeps in Rwanda: A Journey of Transformation. New York: Atria Books, 2009. (DT 450.443.S43 A3 2009) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents Sebarenzi’s account of his life before and after the Rwanda genocide. International political situations of the time with an index. Also includes Sebarenzi’s family photographs and information on his relatives that perished with analysis.

  • Justice and Reconciliation  « top »

  • Buckley-Zistel, Susanne. “Remembering to Forget: Chosen Amnesia As a Strategy for Local Coexistence in Post-Genocide Rwanda.” (external link) Africa 76, no. 2 (2006): 131-150. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Assesses the potential for post-genocide reconciliation in Rwanda. Includes interviews with bystanders, Hutu perpetrators, and survivors. Discusses collective memory, communal rifts, and “chosen amnesia” as strategies employed by individuals living alongside former enemies. Contains references.

  • Eltringham, Nigel. Accounting for Horror: Post-Genocide Debates in Rwanda. London: Pluto Press, 2004. (DT 450.435 .E47 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents various accounts of collective history, opinions and views of participants in post-genocide dialogue based on interviews with government officials and civilians living outside of Rwanda. Includes endnotes, a bibliography, and an index.

  • Magnarella, Paul J. Justice in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide, Its Courts, and the UN Criminal Tribunal. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2000. (KTD 454 .M34 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Discusses the formation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), and its impact on international humanitarian law. Covers the trials of Jean Paul Akayesu and Jean Kambanda. Includes the United Nations Security Council resolution creating the ICTR, its amendments and the indictment against Akayesu.

  • Morris, Virginia, and Michael P. Scharf. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Publishers, 1998. (KZ 1201.A12 M67 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Details the historical and legal foundations of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), its jurisdiction, operations, and role in the international legal arena. Volume two reprints key source documents on the ICTR and its predecessors dating back to World War I.

  • Temple-Raston, Dina. Justice on the Grass: Three Rwandan Journalists, Their Trial for War Crimes and a Nation’s Quest for Redemption. New York: Free Press, 2005. (DT 450.435 .T47 2005) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Documents the case against the owners of RTLM radio station and the tabloid Kangura for inciting acts of violence and genocide. Describes the Gacaca courts processes in which low-level perpetrators appear before the community and elected judges to be tried by a traditional justice system. Includes photos, a map, glossary, notes, bibliography, and an index.

  • Film and Video  « top »

  • Ghosts of Rwanda [DVD]. Directed by Greg Barker, 2004. Alexandria, VA: PBS Home Video, 2004. (DVD Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Examines UNAMIR’s limited action and the international community’s lack of intervention, and highlights individuals who saved lives via interviews with survivors, government officials, United Nations personnel, humanitarian aid workers, soldiers, and killers on the tenth anniversary of the Rwandan genocide. Contains 1994 film footage revealing the situation on the ground and the atrocities.

  • Hotel Rwanda [DVD]. Directed by Terry George, 2004. United States: Metro Goldwyn Mayer Home Entertainment, 2005. (DVD Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Based on the true story of Paul Rusesabagina, the Hutu manager of the Milles Collines Hotel in Kigali, who risked his life to negotiate for the safety of more than 1,200 Tutsis seeking refuge in his hotel. See also his memoir An Ordinary Man: An Autobiography.

  • Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire. [DVD]. Directed by Peter Raymont, 2005. San Francisco: California News Reel, 2005. (DVD Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Chronicles General Roméo Dallaire’s return trip to Rwanda on the tenth anniversary of the genocide and includes his reflections on his role as former Force Commander of UNAMIR. Incorporates 1994 film footage of the atrocities as well as news coverage of the events. Includes commentaries, still photographs, suggested readings, and a film list.

  • Sometimes in April [DVD]. Directed by Raoul Peck, 2005. United States: Home Box Office, 2005. (DVD Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Traces the fate of one family divided by the extremes of the atrocities and the impact of the Gacaca tribal system and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on their lives.

  • Museum Web Resources  « top »

  • Aegis Trust: Not On My Watch (external link)

    Video created to draw world media attention to Rwanda on the tenth anniversary of the genocide. Includes interviews with survivors about the challenges of reconciliation and shows graphic images of the atrocities.

  • Aegis Trust: Our Future Lost: Memorial Film to the Child Victims of the Rwandan Genocide (external link)

    Memorial to the children murdered during the Rwandan genocide made for the 12th anniversary commemoration at the Kigali Memorial Centre. Videos and photographs of children with their families before the genocide are shown as parents and siblings share memories of lost sons, daughters, brothers, and sisters. Includes footage of Rwandan children during the genocide and Rwandan children today speaking about their struggles and the future.

  • Holocaust Encyclopedia: Rwanda: The First Conviction for Genocide

    Discusses the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda’s conviction of Jean-Paul Akayesu the former mayor of Taba, Rwanda, who was found guilty of committing and overseeing crimes against humanity and genocide.

  • Additional Resources  « top »

  • Subject Files

    Ask at the reference desk to see the subject file labeled “Rwanda” to find newspaper and periodical articles.

  • Subject Headings

    To search library catalogs or other electronic search tools for materials on Rwanda, use the following Library of Congress subject headings to retrieve the most relevant citations:

    • Genocide--Rwanda
    • Human rights--Rwanda
    • International Tribunal for Rwanda
    • Rwanda--History--Civil War, 1994
    • Rwanda--Ethnic relations
    • Rwanda--Politics and government
    • Trials (Crimes against humanity)--Rwanda
    • Trials (Genocide)--Rwanda
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