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Social Psychology Essay Exam Questions

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM WINTER 2016 11-1. Mary, a talkative, extraverted, young woman, is strongly attracted to Ronald, a quiet, introverted, middle-aged man. Mary's attraction to Ronald would be best explained by a. social-exchange theory b. the matching phenomenon c. the equity principle d. the complementarity hypothesis 11-2. You overhear a casual acquaintance express approval of you in the coffee shop. You are most likely to think well of that acquaintance if a. you had learned an hour earlier that you had received an average grade on a history test b. you had learned an hour earlier that you had failed a chemistry test c. the acquaintance is unattractive d. the acquaintance is engaged to be married 11-3. Joe, a university sophomore, has dated several women for short periods of time. His dating preferences are strongly influenced by physical appearance and he quickly ends a relationship in favor of a new partner. Joe is probably a. high in self-monitoring b. low in self-monitoring c. low in authoritarianism d. high in authoritarianism 11-4. Bill and Sara's relationship becomes progressively more intimate as each engages in a bit more self-revelation in response to the other's self-disclosure. Their relationship is marked by the _______________ effect. a. disclosure reciprocity b. mutual disinhibition c. reciprocal disinhibition d. reciprocal intimacy 11-5. A stranger rides the same bus you do to school every day. According to the "mereexposure effect," as the days pass you will come to view the stranger a. as merely another student b. more unfavorably c. more critically d. more favorably 11-6. People who were asked to rank ___________________________ reasons for going out with their boyfriend or girlfriend later expressed less love for their partner than did people who were asked to rank ___________________________ reasons. a. companionate, romantic b. extrinsic, intrinsic c. intrinsic, extrinsic d. common, unique 11-7. Research on equity in interpersonal relationships suggests that a. a marriage contract in which each partner specifies what is expected from the other is more likely to undermine than enhance the couple's love b. tit-for-tat exchanges decrease people's liking for one another in business relationships c. the principle is innate d. following the principle increases liking between males but decreases liking between females 11-8. French students' least favorite letter among the letters of the alphabet is a. the least frequent letter in the French language b. the hardest letter to draw c. the last letter of the alphabet d. the hardest letter to pronounce 11-9. Research indicates that we judge beautiful people to be more a. manipulative b. honest c. concerned for others d. intelligent 12-1. According to the text, the classic illustration of altruism is provided by a. the Kitty Genovese case b. the parable of the Good Samaritan c. the parable of the Prodigal Son d. a person donating blood 12-2. Social economics is a term most closely associated with a. social norms theory b. evolutionary psychology c. social-exchange theory d. the decision tree 12-3. According to social-exchange theory we will help when a. the benefits are external and the costs are internal b. the benefits are greater than the costs c. the benefits and costs are proportional d. the benefits are smaller than the costs 12-4. According to Daniel Batson, genuine altruism may have its basis in feelings of a. happiness b. sadness c. guilt d. empathy 12-5. The misinterpretations of emotional states involved in the bystander effect are fed by a. an illusion of transparency b. an illusion of control c. illusory correlation d. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon 12-6. The social-responsibility norm is an expectation that people will a. help those dependent on them b. help those who have helped them c. assume responsibility for helping their parents d. assume responsibility for correcting past mistakes 12-7. According to sociologist Alvin Gouldner, a universal moral code is a. a norm of reciprocity b. a norm of social responsibility c. kin selection d. a norm of restitution 12-8. The reciprocity norm applies most strongly to our interactions with our a. superiors b. inferiors c. equals d. none of the above--the norm's application is totally independent of others' relative social status 12-9. According to the text, one possible reason why people in big cities are less helpful is that a. they have not internalized the norm of social responsibility b. they are busier than those living in small towns c. they have a greater number of selfish genes d. reciprocity does not work as well in big cities as it does in small, isolated groups 12-10. A Gallup poll found that being "highly spiritually committed" was ______________________ with helping the poor and elderly. a. negatively correlated b. uncorrelated c. positively correlated d. positively correlated for women and negatively correlated for men 12-11. Since we are born selfish, evolutionary psychologists propose that we attempt to a. develop a drug that will encourage altruism b. develop an "altruistic gene" c. teach altruism d. live only in small, isolated communities 12-12. According to the text, which theory of altruism proposes two types of altruism: a tit-for-tat reciprocal exchange, and a more unconditional helpfulness? a. social norms theory b. evolutionary psychology c. social-exchange theory d. all of the above 12-13. Latane and Darley attempted to explain people's failure to intervene in cases like that of Kitty Genovese in terms of a. a situational influence b. a personality trait c. a mood factor d. selfish genes 12-14. Researchers had participants fill out a questionnaire in a room either by themselves or with two strangers. When the experimenters pumped smoke through a wall vent, solitary participants a. noticed the smoke more quickly than did those in groups b. were more likely to misinterpret the smoke as being truth gas c. were less likely to seek help d. finished the questionnaire more quickly 12-15. What is meant by the term "bystander effect"? a. people are likely to gather at the scene of a serious accident b. people are likely to gather at the scene of a fire and hinder rescue operations c. people are more likely to provide aid when there are helping models present d. people are less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders 12-16. Which of the following is not one of the steps in Darley and Latane's decision tree? a. noticing the incident b. interpreting the incident as an emergency c. weighing the costs and benefits of helping d. assuming responsibility for intervening 12-17. According to the text, the presence of others may not inhibit helping if the bystanders a. can read each other's reactions b. are all of the same sex c. have a high level of education d. are members of one of the helping professions 12-18. When participants in Darley and Latane's seizure experiment were later interviewed, a. most said they thought the deception used by the experimenter was justified but they would not be willing to take part in future similar experiments because of the stress b. most said they did not think the deception was justified but they would take part in future similar experiments c. most said they did not think the deception was justified and they would not take part in future similar experiments d. all said they thought the deception was justified and would be willing to take part in future similar experiments 12-19. According to the text, people in a hurry may be less willing to help because a. they have weighed the costs of helping and have decided they are too high b. they never fully grasp the situation as one requiring their assistance c. they tend to be selfish and primarily concerned with meeting their own needs d. they tend to be in a negative mood state and therefore are less likely to help 12-20. Researchers who have investigated the relationship between empathy and altruism a. agree that empathy leads to genuine altruism b. agree that empathy leads to helping that is egoistically motivated c. agree that empathy leads to pure altruism in females but not in males d. debate whether empathy leads to pure altruism 12-21. Which of the following negative moods is most likely to motivate altruism? a. depression b. anger c. guilt d. grief 12-22. Research suggests that we are especially likely to help when a. we are happy b. others are present and are doing nothing c. the potential recipient of our help is of the opposite sex d. the potential recipient of our help is of a different nationality 12-23. In comparison to low self-monitors, high self-monitors are especially helpful if a. they are led to think that helpfulness will be socially rewarded b. the social-responsibility norm is salient c. they are exposed to altruistic models d. they experience empathy 12-24. Batson found that those who attributed their helpful act to compliance rather than compassion a. subsequently volunteered less time to a service agency b. demonstrated reactance and ended up feeling more empathy for the person they helped c. felt guilty and responded more positively to a new request for help d. were subsequently more aware of the reciprocity norm 12-25. Rewards and costs are to ________________ as gene survival is to __________. a. social-exchange theory; social norms theory b. sociobiology; social norms theory c. social norms theory; evolutionary psychology d. social-exchange theory; evolutionary psychology 13-1. Which of the following is true of conflict? a. without conflict, people seldom face and resolve their problems b. conflict always involves a real incompatibility of goals c. social psychologists have studied interpersonal but not international conflict d. social psychologists have not been able to study conflict in a laboratory setting 13-2. The tragedy of the commons illustrates how a. communism leads to economic ruin b. self-serving behavior leads to collective doom c. false stereotypes lead to social conflict d. superordinate goals may fail to produce cooperation in capitalistic societies 13-3. Edney's Nuts Game a. is a non-zero-sum game played between two persons b. demonstrates how mirror-image perceptions can increase conflict c. demonstrates how conciliation reduces conflict d. illustrates the tragedy of the commons 13-4. In non-zero-sum games, a. one player always wins and the other always loses b. one player's winnings equal the other player's losses c. both players may win, both may lose, or one may win and the other may lose d. the players' combined outcomes can never equal zero 13-5. The __________________________ the commons, the ___________________________ responsibility each person feels for it. a. smaller; more b. larger; more c. more important; more d. more important; less 13-6. Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated if a. one person is 100 percent cooperative b. the opponents can communicate with one another c. the game is changed into a zero-sum game d. the size of the payoffs is increased 13-7. Appeals to altruistic norms a. have proven to be helpful in reducing social dilemmas b. work in resolving small-scale but not large-scale dilemmas c. create reactance and make people more competitive d. work to resolve conflict in the Nuts Game but not in the Prisoner's Dilemma 13-8. Sherif's experiments in a boys' summer camp demonstrated how _____________ reduce conflict. a. appeals to altruistic norms b. regulations c. communications d. superordinate goals 13-9. People are likely to have high self-esteem if they have a ___________ ethnic identity and a ____________ mainstream cultural identity. a. weak; weak b. weak; strong c. strong; weak d. strong; strong 13-10. In Japan, pay is more often based on _________ and less often based on ____________. a. need; equality b. education; experience c. seniority; productivity d. potential; achievement 13-11. According to the text, the integration of major league baseball with the arrival of Jackie Robinson included all of the following except a. the offer of final-offer arbitration b. establishing equal status contact with a superordinate goal c. individuating the new group member d. creating a perception that change is inevitable 13-12. When Gregory Mitchell and his colleagues asked university students what standard of justice they would prefer if their own place on the economic ladder was unknown, they indicated that they would prefer a. that resources be distributed equally b. that resources be distributed on the basis of productivity c. enough priority placed on equality to meet their own needs but also some reward for productivity d. that goods be distributed strictly on the basis of need 13-13. Shared goals that necessitate cooperative effort are said to be a. reciprocal b. superordinate c. equitable d. companionate 13-14. The tendency of each party to a conflict to see itself as moral and peaceloving and the other as evil and aggressive is known as a. reciprocal illusory perceptions b. the fundamental attribution error c. illusory correlation d. mirror-image perception 13-15. According to Walter Stephan's review of the research, what has been the influence of school desegregation on racial attitudes in the United States? a. overall, racial attitudes seem to have been little affected b. hostility has increased c. hostility has decreased d. hostility has increased in the South but decreased in the North 13-16. Contact between opposing racial groups reduces hostility a. if it occurs in a competitive situation where parties are likely to communicate with each other b. if the minority group is given superior status c. if it is structured to convey equal status d. between younger members of the respective groups but not between older members 13-17. Conflict between groups promotes ___________________________ within groups. a. unity b. conflict c. concern for equity d. role confusion 13-18. Studies of the use of cooperative learning strategies in the schools have shown that such strategies can a. increase self-esteem b. increase liking for school c. improve race relations d. do all of the above 13-19. Which of the following is a cooperative learning strategy used in schools? a. the GRIT model b. the jigsaw technique c. the Nuts Game d. the Simulated Mediation Game 13-20. Bargaining tough is likely to backfire a. when the conflict is over a pie of fixed size b. when the conflict is over a pie that can shrink c. when females bargain tough with males d. in virtually every situation 13-21. The GRIT strategy was formulated as a plan a. for reversing conflict through conciliation b. for decreasing interracial tensions in desegregated schools c. to demonstrate how conflict in general can be reduced through arbitration d. to demonstrate how regulation can alleviate social dilemmas 13-22. In playing the laboratory version of Prisoner's Dilemma, a person's outcome from any given decision will be better if he or she a. cooperates b. defects c. cooperates only if the other person cooperates d. cooperates only if the other person defects 13-23. When Kaori Sato used a simulated forest to study the Commons Dilemma in a communal culture, he found a. results much like those obtained in western cultures b. that people were much more cooperative than in western cultures c. females but not males were more cooperative than their counterparts in western cultures d. adults but not children were more cooperative than their counterparts in western cultures 13-24. When Robyn Dawes and his colleagues gave people a short sermon about group benefits, exploitation, and ethics before they played a dilemma game, a. people reacted by playing even more competitively b. people were more cooperative in their play c. people ignored the sermon and their play was unchanged d. females were more cooperative and males were more competitive 13-25. A cooperative effort engaged in by two previously conflicting groups a. always has the long-term effect of boosting the groups' attraction to one another b. may actually increase tension between the two groups if the effort is unsuccessful c. will only be effective in reducing long-term tensions if engaging in the effort was suggested by a mediator d. typically reduces long-term conflict between opposing groups of males but not between opposing groups of females 13-26. Compared to compromises, integrative agreements are a. more enduring and lead to better ongoing relationships b. only reached through mediation or arbitration c. only possible when perceived injustice is the cause of conflict d. less likely to lead to a permanent settlement 13-27. We are most likely to generalize positive interracial experiences with a few individuals to a more positive attitude toward a whole outgroup if we perceive a. the outgroup as being as diverse as our own group b. the individuals as being representative of their group rather than as atypical c. ourselves as the only members from our own group having positive experiences with the outgroup d. the individuals as high in social status within the outgroup 13-28. In "final-offer arbitration," the third party settles a conflict by a. choosing between the final offers made by each side b. compromising between the final offers made by each side c. providing an integrative agreement based on final offers from each side d. introducing a superordinate goal LONG ANSWER: CHOOSE 5 OF THE FOLLOWING 10 QUESTIONS TO ANSWER 1. Identify similarities and differences between social psychology and the other disciplines that study human nature. 2. Describe how the self-serving bias can be adaptive but also maladaptive. 3. Define the fundamental attribution error and explain why it occurs. 4. Identify the components of an attitude. 5. Describe the findings of three classic studies on conformity. 6. Identify characteristics of the audience which influence susceptibility to persuasion. 7. Discuss the nature and function of norms. Identify some differing cultural norms and at least one universal norm. 8. Identify the conditions under which social loafing is likely to occur. 9. Discuss the role of proximity and physical attractiveness in initial attraction. 10. Explain how bargaining, mediation, and arbitration can be used to resolve differences between opposing parties.

Help

(a) Describe one theory of attribution. (12 marks)

(b) Evaluate the theory of attribution that you described in part (a) in terms of research evidence. (12 marks)

(c) Discuss the nature of social representations in social perception. (24 marks) 

(d) Discuss two ways in which prejudice and/or discrimination might be reduced. (24 marks)

(e) Discuss research studies related to interpersonal attraction. (24 marks) 

(f) Describe one theory related to the maintenance of relationships. (12 marks)

(g) Evaluate the theory related to the maintenance of relationships that you described in part (f) (12 marks)

(h) Discuss cultural and sub-cultural differences in relationships, with reference to ‘understudied’ relationships. (24 marks)

(i) Critically consider one social psychological theory of aggression. (24 marks)

(j) Describe two research studies related to bystander behaviour. (12 marks) 

(k) Assess the value of these studies for understanding altruism and/or bystander behaviour. (12 marks)

(l)Discuss explanations of media influences on anti-social behaviour. (24 marks)  

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